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The concept of universal design emerged from the field of architecture. Educators have begun to apply universal design concepts in schools and classrooms to ensure that instructional practices, materials, and educational environments meet the needs of the wide spectrum of students in today's schools. The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) developed the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) concept based on the brain research of Vygotasky, a Russian psychologist. Additionally, a number of promising research-based instructional methods represent a range of modalities, practices, and critical elements of universal design for learning.

Assistive Technology, Universal Design, Universal Design for Learning: Improved Learning Opportunities

Hitchcock C., & Stahl, S. (2003). Journal of Special Education Technology, 18(4),2-24.

This article addresses the benefits that are likely to derive from shifting the focus to developing and implementing a universally designed curriculum.

[ http://jset.unlv.edu/18.4/hitchcock/first.html ]

Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation

Hall, T., Strangman, N., & Meyer, A. (2003). Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum.

This web article addresses the connection between Differentiated Instruction and Universal Design for Learning.

[ http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstructudl.html ]

Journal Articles: Universal Design for Learning

Special Connections. University of Kansas.

Special Connections is a Project of National Significance (CFDA #84.325N) funded through the federal Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) and coordinated through the University of Kansas.

[ http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=instruction┬žion=main&subsection=udl/research ]

NCAC Publications

National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum.

The publications listed were developed by NCAC researchers to provide support to educators interested in learning about policies and practices related to improved access to the general curriculum for all students. They represent a range of modalities, practices, and critical elements of Universal Design for Learning.

[ http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/index.html ]

RTI4Success

Response-to-Instruction and Universal Design for Learning: How Might They Intersect in the General Education Classroom?

This publication provides an introduction to RTI and UDL and explores their possible intersection in the classroom.

[ http://www.rti4success.org/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1 ]

Universal Design for Learning: Deriving Guiding Principles from Networks That Learn

Rose, D. H. (2001). Journal of Special Education Technology, 16(1), 66-70.

The article describes principles of Universal Design for Learning, which are based on brain research.

[ http://jset.unlv.edu/16.2/asseds/rose.html ]

Universal Design to Support Access to the General Education Curriculum
The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8

The Access Center (2004). Washington, DC.

This web article addresses the history, emergence and benefits of UDL.

[ http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/documents/UDFINAL_000.pdf ]